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Study Guide

Field 201: Educating All Students ( E A S )

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General Directions

This test consists of selected-response (multiple-choice) questions and three constructed-response assignments.

Each selected-response question in this test is presented with four answer choices. Read each question and answer choice carefully and select the start uppercase ONE end uppercase best answer. You should answer all questions. Even if you are unsure of an answer, it is better to guess than not to answer a question at all.

You have a total of 135 minutes to complete the entire test. Be sure to allocate your time carefully so you are able to complete the entire test within the testing session.

Sample Test Questions

Competency 0001 
Diverse Student Populations

Exhibit 1
Class Description

Ms. Finnegan is a new sixth-grade English language arts teacher whose class includes 34 students with diverse characteristics and needs. The majority of students come from one culture, which reflects the composition of the school population as a whole. Recently, the community has become home to a growing immigrant population. This shift in demographics has resulted in some tension at the school between groups of students. The principal asked teachers to make it a priority to create inclusive classroom environments and provided professional development sessions and faculty in-service training to support them in their efforts.

Ms. Finnegan has a goal of learning as much as possible about her students and their backgrounds, interests, and needs. During the first few weeks of school, Ms. Finnegan administers a student interest survey and each day she makes notes in her journal about classroom activities, student interactions, and students' responses to various instructional approaches. She also frequently reviews assessment data. Her review of data from students' most recent standardized reading assessment indicates that, of her 34 students, only ten have achieved the level of proficient in English language arts.

Ms. Finnegan is planning a lesson on distinguishing fact from opinion in informational texts. She plans to have students work in small groups for some lesson activities. As part of the planning process, Ms. Finnegan is reflecting on the notes in her journal and considering various strategies for ensuring that instruction is culturally responsive and helps her students understand and apply their learning in future lessons.

Exhibit 2
Excerpts from Ms. Finnegan's Journal

Tuesday, September 6

Many students in the class want to associate primarily with peers from the same cultural background. I've engaged students in activities to help them get acquainted, but some of them are reluctant to interact with peers from a different background. It also appears that a few students hold negative views about individuals from different cultural groups. There are times when I sense underlying tension in the classroom.

Wednesday, September 7

Today I introduced a large-group lesson on identifying main ideas and supporting details. For the lesson, I chose two relatively brief informational passages. One passage was about the U.S. economy and the other passage was about the U.S. legislative system. When we read the passages together, students had questions about the content. In the course of addressing these questions, I could sense students' attention to the lesson slipping away.

Monday, September 12

Today we were discussing a magazine article about a popular musician. Many students had comments or questions, but I noticed differences in how students communicated. Some students were quiet and waited to be called on before speaking, while other students were quite animated, offering many comments and even interrupting to make a point. It is going to be challenging to manage discussions so that all students have an opportunity to contribute.

Friday, September 16

Near the end of class yesterday, two students became engaged in a loud and disruptive verbal altercation. I learned that one of the students had made a culturally insensitive remark to the other. I took the students aside immediately and spoke with both of them about their behavior, but the incident created an atmosphere of unease that lasted all day today. The other students appeared distracted and anxious. Hopefully, this tension will ease over the weekend. I am also meeting to discuss this with the principal so that she is aware of the situation. I would also like to ask her to suggest strategies for creating a more positive classroom climate.

Exhibit 3
Excerpt from Ms. Finnegan's Draft Lesson Plan
Topic: Fact and Opinion
Distinguish between fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text. ( N Y C C L S R.LST.8.8)
Lesson Objectives:
Students will classify statements from informational texts as fact or opinion.
Students will write original statements of fact and original statements of opinion.
Students will work in groups of five or six. Groups will be assigned by the teacher.
large T-chart, fact and opinion statements written on sentence strips, copies of a newspaper article about a professional basketball player
Lesson Component Activity
Introduction Define fact and opinion for students. Ask students to make statements about a popular and familiar book, movie, or television show. Write the statements on the board. Guide students in classifying their statements as fact or opinion.
Activity 1
Distribute 3 sentence strips with  fact or opinion  statements to each group. Have students discuss statements and decide whether they are fact or opinion. Post the large T-chart. One side is labeled start uppercase FACT end uppercase and the other side is labeled start uppercase OPINION end uppercase . Students in each group take turns placing the group's sentence strips on the appropriate side of the chart.
Activity 2
Distribute the newspaper article about the professional basketball player. Have students read and discuss the article with the other members of their group. Students independently write two statements of fact from the article and two statements of opinion. Students take turns sharing their sentences with the group. Once the group verifies that the statements are  fact or opinion , each student records the four sentences in his or her journal.

Use the exhibits to answer the questions that follow.

1. The patterns of interaction in Ms. Finnegan's class suggest that students would benefit the most from which of the following instructional approaches?

  1. implementing frequent independent study projects and self-paced learning activities
  2. providing a highly structured learning environment that features strict rules and consequences
  3. designing a system of concrete rewards for classwide achievement of learning objectives
  4. adopting heterogeneous grouping practices that promote shared goals and mutual learning support
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: D. Since the interactions in this class tend to be primarily between peers with similar backgrounds, heterogeneous grouping practices would provide opportunities for diverse groups of students to work together toward a common purpose. This approach also helps students recognize peers' strengths and talents as well as areas they have in common. Ultimately this approach helps promote a more inclusive learning environment because students often learn that preconceptions and views of peers from backgrounds different from their own may not be accurate.

2. Which of the following statements describes the most likely explanation for students' lack of engagement with the main idea activity on September 7?

  1. The use of two passages made the activity too long to hold students' attention.
  2. The students prefer reading literary passages to reading informational passages.
  3. The teacher did not incorporate students' prior knowledge and provide other appropriate scaffolding.
  4. The topics of the passages were too similar and provided little variety to stimulate students' thinking.
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: C. Activating prior knowledge is a research-based strategy for enhancing student engagement and helping students make sense of new information. Taking time to discuss with students what they already know about a topic as well as content-specific vocabulary increases students' engagement with the text because it provides a framework for connecting the topic to their current knowledge and experiences.

3. Which of the following tasks would be the most appropriate and effective method for informally assessing student learning in Ms. Finnegan's lesson on distinguishing between fact and opinion?

  1. Student groups evaluate their performance on the small-group activities on fact and opinion.
  2. Individual students use different colors to highlight facts and opinions in a passage on a familiar topic.
  3. Pairs of students test each other's knowledge of fact and opinion using textbook passages.
  4. The teacher observes student groups as they perform the small-group activities on fact and opinion.
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: B. Informal assessment of student learning is often accomplished through performance-type tasks that must be completed by individual students. In this way, the teacher can gain a more accurate measure of every student's understanding and ensure that students who need additional teaching or support are not overlooked because they performed a task as part of a group.

4. Which of the following additional actions should Ms. Finnegan have taken in response to the verbal altercation on September 16?

  1. Discuss the code of conduct in order to restore a classroom climate that is safe and comfortable for students.
  2. Encourage students to write in their journals about how the incident made them feel.
  3. Have students work in small groups to reexamine classroom rules and suggest revisions as needed.
  4. Send the students in question to an alternate location in the school to reflect on their behavior.
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: A. Teachers have a responsibility to maintain a classroom environment that is conducive to learning. Though the teacher dealt with the immediate troubling behavior, the situation had a negative effect on the rest of the students. By bringing the incident into the open through discussion or other strategies, the teacher would have been able to help alleviate students' anxiety and refocus the class on learning.

Use the exhibits to complete the task that follows.

5. After analyzing the information provided, write a response of approximately 150 to 200 words in which you:

The final version of your response should conform to the conventions of edited American English.

Sample Response

One issue related to diversity that Ms. Finnegan should address in planning the lesson on fact and opinion is that students, depending on their backgrounds or gender, may or may not be familiar with the topic professional basketball. Students with little or no background knowledge of basketball will be at a disadvantage when it comes to determining whether a statement is a fact or an opinion.

Ms. Finnegan could address this issue by allowing students to choose from texts written on several different topics that are more familiar to all students. She could then form groups according to the texts students choose.

This strategy would be effective in facilitating student learning because students would have the necessary background knowledge of their topic. They would not have to expend mental energy trying to comprehend text about an unfamiliar topic, and could focus their attention on the primary objective of distinguishing between fact and opinion. This strategy would also encourage students to work with different peers and help them get to know other students who share their interests.

Competency 0002 
English Language Learners

Exhibit 1
Class Description

Mr. Lin teaches middle school mathematics intervention classes for students who scored a 1 or 2 on the state mathematics assessment. Mr. Lin has been working with Valeria, an eighth-grade English Language Learner who struggles academically. Valeria started school in the United States in second grade. She has been at the advanced stage of English language proficiency for several years but has been unable to achieve the performance level of proficient on the New York State English as a Second Language Achievement Test ( N Y S E S L A T ). Valeria is also performing significantly below grade level in mathematics.

Valeria communicates fluently in English and when doing so, she sounds like a native English speaker. Although she has some proficiency in her home language, she rarely speaks her home language, even with family members. She is assimilated into U.S. culture and is largely indistinguishable from native-English-speaking peers.

In his interactions with Valeria, Mr. Lin noted some of Valeria's strengths and needs in mathematics. She sometimes struggles to understand Mr. Lin's explanations of mathematical concepts. Mr. Lin has found that presenting a concept multiple times using different methods helps Valeria understand the meaning of the concept. Once she comprehends his explanation, she is usually able to understand the concept and accurately complete the appropriate calculations. However, Valeria has trouble applying the concept to word problems and frequently skips steps or misinterprets the question. Mr. Lin is planning a lesson on linear equations. As part of the planning process, Mr. Lin is reviewing Valeria's diagnostic mathematics assessment report and N Y S E S L A T scores and considering strategies for making the lesson accessible to her.

Mr. Lin is planning a lesson on linear equations. As part of the planning process, Mr. Lin is reviewing Valeria's diagnostic mathematics assessment report and N Y S E S L A T scores and considering strategies for making the lesson accessible to her.

Exhibit 2
Excerpts from Valeria's Assessment Data
Student: Valeria
Grade level: 7
Age: 12 years 7 months
Algebra  percent Correct  Mastery Level
Integer Operations 76 Mastery
Fraction Operations 75.5 Mastery
Decimal Operations 72 Partial Mastery
Comparing and Converting 70.1 Partial Mastery
Estimating and Rounding 52 Partial Mastery
Evaluating Exponents 50 Partial Mastery
Ratio and Proportions 47 Nonmastery
Simplifying Expressions 59.5 Partial Mastery
Coordinate Graphing 45 Nonmastery
Simple Equations 60 Partial Mastery
Foundation Skills—Timed Math Facts 65.4 n/a
Foundation Skills—Untimed Math Facts 88 n/a
Foundation Skills—Following Directions 68 n/a
Valeria's N Y S E S L A T Data
(last year)
Raw Score Raw Score Required for Proficient State Average Raw Score Maximum Raw Score Possible
Listening 20 21 17 25
Speaking 31 30 24 34
Reading 19 22 21 27
Writing 16 19 18 22
Score and Proficiency Level:
Scale Score: 837
*Overall State Percentile Rank: 52
*The student's score on the test was the same or higher than  52 percent  of all students statewide in the student's grade who took this test.

Proficiency: Advanced
Exhibit 3
Excerpt from Mr. Lin's Draft Lesson Plan
Topic: Linear Equations
Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations. ( N Y C C L S M. 8. E E . C 8 )
Lesson Objective:
Students will identify the intersecting point of a system of linear equations.
Essential Question:
How can we use graphs to solve linear equations?
slope, intersecting lines, system of linear equations
Lesson Component Activity
Introduction Using a coordinate plane on the board, review with students how to graph a single linear equation using the slope and y-intercept. Explain to students that this skill provides a foundation for them to be able to identify the point of intersection of two or more linear equations that seek a common solution.
Demonstration Write two linear equations on the board (e.g.,  x minus y equals 5  and  3 x plus y equals 7 ). Model for students how to rewrite the equations in slope-intercept form, graph both equations on the same coordinate plane, and identify the point of intersection.

Using the same linear equations, show students how to construct a table of values and find appropriate values to fill the table. Lead students to the observation that the x-value that gives the same y-value for both equations is the point of intersection and therefore the solution to the linear system.
Practice Activity Students will solve five linear systems by graphing the lines and constructing the table of values.  start italics Note: Be sure to circulate and to monitor student understanding.  end italics 

Use the exhibits to answer the questions that follow.

6. In planning instruction for Valeria, Mr. Lin has a professional responsibility to focus his efforts on

  1. teaching Valeria how to use various strategies for monitoring her own progress and learning
  2. adapting academic standards to ensure that Valeria has an opportunity to experience success
  3. identifying real-world contexts in which Valeria can practice concepts and skills
  4. providing Valeria with the scaffolding she needs to master the same concepts and skills as her peers
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: D. According to federal law, schools are obligated to ensure that English Language Learners have equal access to education. English Language Learners have a right to receive support that will help them participate meaningfully in school programs and curricula. Teachers have a professional responsibility to take appropriate actions (e.g., scaffolding, language support) to ensure that instructional content is comprehensible for English Language Learners, facilitating their equal participation in instruction.

7. Mr. Lin can best promote Valeria's comprehension of academic language by using which of the following strategies during the lesson on linear equations?

  1. Write the vocabulary associated with the lesson concepts on the board while explaining it to students.
  2. Assign individual students to describe for the class the steps they used to solve one of the problems.
  3. Develop a numbered list of steps for students to refer to as the teacher models the problem-solving process.
  4. Allow students to complete the practice activity with a partner or in small groups to encourage discussion of lesson concepts.
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: A. Writing vocabulary associated with lesson concepts on the board while explaining it helps promote comprehension of academic language because this strategy places the vocabulary in context instead of teaching it in isolation. Academic language becomes more comprehensible when it is contextualized. This strategy also presents the vocabulary in two forms—visual and verbal, a technique that also facilitates comprehension.

8. Mr. Lin plans to meet with Valeria's English as a Second Language ( E S L ) teacher to discuss how to meet Valeria's needs as they relate to this lesson. Which of the following lesson planning tasks should Mr. Lin and the E S L teacher focus on  start italics first end italics  to help ensure a productive collaboration?

  1. Design alternate activities for Valeria that address the concepts targeted in the lesson.
  2. Identify strategies and materials for integrating language objectives for Valeria into math instruction.
  3. Determine which peers would be most appropriate for Valeria to work with during the lesson.
  4. Rewrite textbook explanations on mathematical topics for Valeria to focus more on computational procedures and less on abstract concepts.
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: B. Integrating language objectives into content instruction is an important first step in ensuring that English Language Learners have equal access to the curriculum even though they may not be fully proficient in English. Second-language acquisition, particularly acquisition of academic language, requires opportunities for students to learn and practice language skills in a meaningful context. The E S L teacher has expertise in outlining the types of language Valeria will need to learn and use in order to accomplish the content objectives Mr. Lin has identified for the lesson.

9. Which of the following factors related to language acquisition is most likely contributing to Valeria's below-average content-area literacy skills?

  1. She is reluctant to take risks in English learning.
  2. She has limited literacy in and use of her home language.
  3. She has a debilitating level of communication apprehension.
  4. She receives insufficient English input in the school environment.
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: B. First-language literacy development is strongly related to successful second-language learning and academic achievement. Many literacy skills in the first language transfer positively to the second language. English Language Learners who have not developed literacy skills in the home language may lack key language foundations on which language and content learning can be built. Another factor in second-language acquisition is the degree to which English Language Learners maintain and use their home language. Literacy in and use of the home language is an asset that facilitates English Language Learners' conceptual understanding of academic content. Bilingualism affirms English Language Learners' sense of identity and competency, characteristics that play an important role in learning.

Use the exhibits to complete the task that follows.

10. After analyzing the information provided, write a response of approximately 150 to 200 words in which you:

The final version of your response should conform to the conventions of edited American English.

Sample Response

Valeria has difficulty applying mathematical concepts and sometimes skips steps or misinterprets information even when she comprehends Mr. Lin's explanations and understands the concept represented by the problems. Since she has not yet fully mastered some of the prerequisite skills for this lesson, she will need scaffolding to help her successfully perform the lesson activities.

One strategy for differentiating instruction for Valeria in this lesson to address this need would be to provide Valeria with a written step-by-step guide of the procedure for solving linear equations. Each step of the process would show an example of what the calculations should look like at that step.

Providing Valeria with a written, step-by-step guide will help make sure that Valeria does not skip steps in solving the equations. It will also facilitate her ability to apply mathematical concepts because she can use the guide to verify that her solutions resemble the examples in the guide. This approach will help scaffold Valeria's ability to solve linear equations accurately.

Competency 0003 
Students with Disabilities and Other Special Learning Needs

Exhibit 1
Class Description

Mr. Forrest teaches a general education kindergarten class. The class includes Lily, who is receiving Tier 3 Response to Intervention ( R T I ) services to help her strengthen her numeracy concepts and skills, and Theodore, who is a student with a disability classified with autism. Theodore has an Individualized Education Program ( I E P ). Both Lily and Theodore speak English as their home language.

Lily's receptive and expressive language development is commensurate with that of her classmates. Lily receives Tier 3  R T I  services for 25 minutes, five times a week, beyond core instruction in math, to promote her grasp of mathematics concepts and skills.

Theodore is verbal, but he only likes to talk about topics of particular interest to him (e.g., cars). His favorite activity is lining up small toy cars end-to-end in a long row, and he becomes very agitated if anyone disturbs his line of cars. He rarely participates in class discussions, and tends to wander away during morning meeting. Theodore is performing on grade level in numeracy skills development, but is below grade level in decoding and sight word recognition. He receives services from his special education teacher in the resource room to address his needs in the area of reading for one hour a day, and he is accompanied by an aide at all other times during the school day.

Exhibit 2
Excerpt from Informal Classroom Observations of Lily by Mr. Forrest (January, current year)

Lily needs significant support with everyday tasks involving mathematical thinking, particularly those tasks requiring an understanding of one-to-one correspondence. For example, when it is her turn to set the snack table, she does not place one napkin at each chair as I modeled for her, but places them around the table randomly, putting clumps of napkins by some chairs and none by others. Similarly, when she was recently asked to give one piece of paper to each student at her table, she handed out several sheets to some students and missed others entirely.

Her ability to understand and perform quantity discrimination also needs to be strengthened. At the manipulatives table, where she was playing with three blocks and the child next to her was playing with 20 or more blocks of the same size, Lily was unable to tell me whether she or her classmate had more blocks. When I asked Lily to count her blocks, she said, "One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten!" very rapidly, making no reference to the three blocks in front of her. When I modeled counting her blocks by touching each and saying "One, two, three," she was unable to imitate my action independently, even after I had physically helped her touch her blocks as she counted each one.

Exhibit 3
Excerpt from Mr. Forrest's Draft Lesson Plan
Topic: Counting and Cardinality
Count to 100 by ones and by tens. ( N Y C C L S M. K. C C. 1 )
Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality. ( N Y C C L S M. K. C C. 4 )
Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies. ( N Y C C L S M. K. C C. 6 )
Lesson Objectives:
Students will count to 10 by ones.
Students will compare numbers of objects up to 10.
Students will work individually.
cardinal number names  1 to 10,  count, more than, fewer than, same as
strips of poster board, small picture cards of animals, paste, crayons
Lesson Component Activity
Introduction Ask the students if they have ever counted anything. Give each of them the opportunity to tell about something they have counted, to demonstrate counting or to give reasons why they use counting.

 start italics Notes:
Have students sit on their carpet squares in the morning meeting area.
 end italics 
Individual Activity Tell the students that they may each choose up to 10 pictures of different animals from a box of pictures the teacher will bring around the class. After choosing their picture cards, the students will paste their cards in a line on a strip of poster board. The students will use crayons to decorate their animal cards.

 start italics Notes:
Have the students count aloud as they choose each card. Monitor to make sure they count accurately. Ask each student to state how many cards he or she has chosen before moving on to the next student.
 end italics 
Class Activity The teacher will ask pairs of students to come to the front of the class to show their strips of animal cards. Each student will hold up his or her strip and count the number of cards. Ask the two students to tell whether they have the same number of cards or whether one strip has more or fewer cards.

 start italics Notes:
Monitor the attention paid by the seated students and involve them by asking questions about the card strips being shown (e.g., How many cats are on Miguel's strip? Who has the same number of animals as Irina?).
 end italics 

Use the exhibits to answer the questions that follow.

11. Which of the following would likely be the best strategy for Mr. Forrest to use to foster Theodore's active engagement in the lesson on counting cards?

  1. Have Theodore work on the activity in a small group rather than individually.
  2. Conduct the counting lesson immediately after morning meeting.
  3. Encourage Theodore's aide to stay nearby to monitor him throughout the entire lesson.
  4. Include cards that have pictures of cars as well as pictures of animals.
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: D. Incorporating student interests into an activity is an effective strategy for promoting engagement. Theodore is particularly focused on cars, so including picture cards with cars on them will help capture his interest and encourage a greater degree of participation on his part in performing the activity. Creating a line of cards with pictures of cars closely reflects Theodore's favorite activity of lining up real toy cars.

12. Another student in the class, Althea, has fine-motor delays. Mr. Forrest could best support Althea's full participation in the lesson by

  1. creating larger picture cards and strips of poster board for Althea to use
  2. assigning a classmate to be her partner and to place the pictures on the poster board as Althea directs
  3. asking Althea's occupational therapist ( O T ) to pre-teach the lesson in the resource room
  4. having Althea help monitor the other students' accuracy in counting their picture cards
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: A. Fine-motor delays can result in difficulties performing actions such as gripping a crayon or using a pincer motion to pick up small objects. In Althea's case, her ability to manipulate the regular size cards and strips may be impeded by her fine-motor delays. Providing her with larger materials will enable her to perform the task with less demand on her fine-motor skills.

13. Which of the following information sources would be most useful in helping the school determine if Lily should be referred for an initial evaluation for special education services?

  1. notes from the school building leader's observation of Lily during math instruction at least three times to support the referral
  2. standardized test results showing a severe discrepancy between Lily's achievement and intellectual ability
  3. an affidavit from Lily's teacher documenting her professional opinion that  R T I  services are not adequately meeting Lily's needs
  4. data from multiple sources supporting the likelihood that Lily's underachievement is not due to lack of appropriate, scaffolded instruction in mathematics
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: D. Research has shown that the use of targeted interventions prior to formal special education referral can positively affect the success of children in school as well as prevent inappropriate referrals to special education. Therefore, before formally referring Lily for evaluation, it is important for the teacher to implement specific interventions to address Lily's learning needs and gather data about Lily's performance from various sources to ensure that every effort has been made to provide effective and appropriate instruction.

14. Mr. Forrest will most likely need to provide Lily with individualized support during which component of the draft lesson plan?

  1. identifying cards that she likes
  2. comparing numbers of cards
  3. decorating her cards with crayons
  4. arranging her selected cards in a row
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: B. Comparing numbers of cards requires numeracy concepts that Lily has yet to master. Because she does not grasp the concept of one-to-one correspondence, Lily will likely be unable to count the cards independently with any degree of accuracy. She will require scaffolding and targeted support in this area during the lesson to benefit from instruction.

Use the exhibits to complete the task that follows.

15. After analyzing the information provided, write a response of approximately 150 to 200 words in which you:

The final version of your response should conform to the conventions of edited American English.

Sample Response

One aspect of the draft lesson plan that would be difficult for Theodore would be participating in the class discussion during the introduction of the lesson. This aspect of the lesson would be difficult because Theodore often does not participate in morning meeting and the topic is not about cars.

One adaptation I would make to the draft lesson plan would be, with the assistance of Theodore's aide, to explain to Theodore in advance that he will be allowed to line up his cars and demonstrate counting them during the introduction if he sits in the circle while two other students tell about or demonstrate counting. I would tell Theodore that I will show him a picture of a car when it is his turn.

This adaptation would be effective for Theodore because it would help engage his attention during the introduction by linking the counting activity to a topic he finds motivating. Having him sit in the circle while two other students are talking will also serve as a reinforcement of expected behavior. Showing a picture of a car will alert Theodore when he is expected to participate. This adaptation will enable Theodore to participate more fully in instruction.

Competency 0004 
Teacher Responsibilities

16. The parents of a middle school student believe that their child's educational records contain an inaccurate report of their child's involvement in an incident where a small group of students behaved inappropriately during a school field trip. The school denied the parents' initial request to amend the report, and a formal hearing upheld the school's decision. At this point, the parents have the legal right to

  1. present objections to the school's report of the incident to a court-appointed mediator
  2. place a statement in their child's records, stating their disagreement with the school's report
  3. examine the records of the other students who were involved in the incident
  4. have their child's current records sealed and a new set of records created
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: B. According to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act ( F E R P A ),  parents or guardians  or eligible students have the right to request that a school correct records that they believe to be inaccurate or misleading. If the school decides not to amend the record, the  parent or guardian  or eligible student then has the right to a formal hearing. After the hearing, if the school still does not decide to amend the record, the  parent or guardian  or eligible student has the right to place a statement in the record setting forth his or her view about the contested information.

Competency 0005 
School-Home Relationships

17. Teachers in an elementary school are creating take-home activity kits to reinforce students' in-school learning. Activities are content-related and designed to be completed by students and their  parents or guardians.  Materials for the activities are included and directions are provided in the students' home languages whenever possible. The take-home activity kits are likely to be most effective in achieving the desired outcome if the teachers emphasize which of the following types of activities?

  1. oral activities that require parents/guardians to listen as students recite important factual information
  2. written practice activities for students to complete with their parents'/guardians' supervision
  3. complex activities that students and parent/guardian complete together
  4. hands-on activities that promote interaction between students and their parents/guardians
Enter to expand or collapse answer. Answer expanded
Correct Response: D. Take-home activities that are hands-on promote students' engagement in an activity because such activities help students become actively involved in learning. Additionally, interaction between students and their parents/guardians about the task and their learning helps students internalize the targeted knowledge and skills and enables parents/guardians to extend their children's thinking by asking questions.