Study Guide

Field 063: Deaf and Hard of Hearing

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Sample Selected-Response Questions

Competency 0001
Foundations of Deaf Education

1. The National Council on Disability has evaluated ways in which No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) promote the academic progress of students with disabilities. A primary challenge of implementing both of these policies in serving the population of students who are deaf or hard of hearing and who have Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) is that

  1. under NCLB, too many of the students are being served outside of general education classrooms
  2. NCLB has led to the majority of the students being taught through English-based signing in conjunction with speech or simultaneous communication
  3. under NCLB, the students do not have access to the same educational opportunities that are provided to students without IEPs
  4. NCLB supports group accountability, whereas the focus for the students with IEPs is on making progress toward personalized achievement goals
Correct Response: D. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of contemporary issues, trends, and research upon which educational practice is based. The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 adopts standards-based reform measures toward the goal of improving outcomes for all students. The reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004 mandates the free and appropriate education for all students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment possible that meets their unique needs. A primary challenge of implementing both policies, according to the National Council on Disability, is aligning the standardized accountability markers of NCLB to the mandates of IDEA that focus on individualized goals in the evaluation of student growth.

Competency 0002
Knowledge of Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

2. A general education kindergarten teacher has a student who uses American Sign Language (ASL). The Teacher of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing recommends that the general education teacher incorporate ASL signs when introducing new reading vocabulary as a general practice with all students in the class. Which statement describes the primary benefit of this practice for all students?

  1. It accelerates students' development of second-language proficiency at an early age.
  2. It promotes graphomotor processing, which helps students draw inferences based on context.
  3. It utilizes multisensory reinforcement to help students comprehend and retain key concepts.
  4. It improves students' understanding that word meanings change depending on context.
Correct Response: C. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of the similarities and differences between students with and without exceptionalities. Research supports the findings that including sign language in instruction can enhance the development of early literacy in all children, regardless of developmental levels. Using sign language provides all children with both visual and kinesthetic reinforcement to aid learning and retention of new vocabulary and concepts. Additional advantages of including signing in literacy activities for hearing students may also include increasing student focus and attention, as well as appreciation for diversity of language and abilities.

Competency 0003
Assessment and Individual Program Planning

3. Ms. Weil, a Teacher of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, teaches a class in which American Sign Language (ASL) is the language of instruction. Ms. Weil is reviewing a student's performance on an individual academic achievement assessment. In one subtest, the student was asked to point to the picture that best corresponded to the signed object, action, or concept. Results from this subtest would be most useful for evaluating the student's skills in

  1. receptive vocabulary
  2. reading comprehension
  3. phonemic awareness
  4. expressive language
Correct Response: A. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics, uses, and limitations of various types of formal and informal assessments, including assessments of signed receptive and expressive language. Receptive vocabulary refers to all of the words a person recognizes and understands when they are heard, read, or signed. One common method of assessing a student's basic receptive vocabulary in ASL is through a picture word assessment. A picture word assessment commonly found on an individualized academic achievement test assesses a student's understanding of basic vocabulary. The examiner signs an object, an action, or a concept, and the student selects the appropriate picture to illustrate the sign.

Competency 0004
Strategies for Planning and Managing the Learning Environment and for Providing Behavioral Interventions

4. Jeanette is a kindergarten student who recently received cochlear implants. She attends a general education class and receives direct consultant teacher services from the Teacher of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Jeanette has recently begun hitting her classmates. After her teachers attempt a series of behavioral support measures, without success, the Committee on Special Education (CSE) convenes to discuss conducting a functional behavioral assessment (FBA). The primary purpose of conducting an FBA would be to

  1. determine what consequences would be the most effective to use to extinguish the behavior
  2. understand why the student engages in the behavior and how the behavior relates to the environment
  3. identify an alternative program placement that would facilitate management of the behavior
  4. evaluate the effectiveness of the measures being used in response to the behavior
Correct Response: B. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of strategies for developing, implementing, monitoring, and modifying behavioral interventions for students who are deaf or hard of hearing, including strategies for providing positive behavioral interventions. A functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is considered a problem-solving process. It contains a variety of formalized steps to identify the purpose of a student's challenging behavior. A Committee on Special Education (CSE) is required to conduct an FBA prior to developing a behavioral intervention plan (BIP) for the student, when the behavior(s) of a student interfere with learning. The FBA is the first step in understanding the motivations behind and implications of the behavior in order to determine the appropriate interventions and instruction targeted to the needs of the student.

Competency 0005
Instructional Planning and Delivery to Promote Students' Success in the General Curriculum

5. A Teacher of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing teaches a class of seventh graders who use American Sign Language (ASL). The teacher would like to promote the students' ability to understand new vocabulary that will be encountered in an upcoming science unit. Which step would be most important for the teacher to take first?

  1. Show students the written vocabulary words and have students fingerspell the new words prior to being introduced to the sign.
  2. Say and sign each new vocabulary word to students and have them copy each of the words into a vocabulary notebook.
  3. Guide students to use the new vocabulary with appropriate grammar and syntax in a sentence.
  4. Design opportunities to expose students to new concepts and vocabulary and show students the correct signs and words in print.
Correct Response: D. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of research-based explicit and systematic instruction and intervention in reading for students who are deaf or hard of hearing, including reading in the content areas. Research has shown that vocabulary instruction is most effective when students are provided with a variety of opportunities to engage with new words in meaningful contexts. Systematic and direct vocabulary instruction focuses on teaching key words, and usually involves teaching conceptually related words, rather than individual words without context. It is important for the teacher to design opportunities for students to understand and apply the words in both signed and printed contexts.

Competency 0006
Strategies for Teaching Language, Communication, and Social Skills

6. Omar is a third-grade student with a moderate bilateral hearing loss who attends a general education class with the use of hearing aids and an FM system. Omar has recently reported to his Teacher of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing that the batteries in his hearing aids sometimes stop working, which prevents him from understanding what is going on in the classroom. The Teacher of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing would like to promote Omar's self-advocacy skills to address this issue. Which strategy would be most effective for this purpose?

  1. Teach Omar how to change the batteries independently when they need to be replaced.
  2. Give Omar a reward each week when he remembers to check the batteries.
  3. Ask Omar's parents to hold regular discussions with Omar about changing the batteries.
  4. Coach Omar's classroom teacher to recognize signs that the batteries need changing.
Correct Response: A. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of strategies for determining self-concept awareness and teaching self-advocacy skills and encouraging increased independence. The development of self-advocacy skills refers to the ability to recognize and understand his or her own strengths, weaknesses, and needs in a variety of settings. Additionally, it is the ability of the individual to ask for support, when necessary, to meet his or her needs. In this scenario, self-advocacy includes fostering skills to recognize and self-address when the student's hearing aids are not working effectively to meet his needs.