Study Guide

Field 245: Multi-Subject
Part Three: Arts and Sciences

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Sample Selected-Response Questions

Competency 0001
Science and Technology

1. A male dog displays symptoms of a sex-linked disease caused by a recessive gene located on the X chromosome. When this male mates with a female, 50 percent of their male offspring exhibit symptoms of the disease. On the basis of this information, what can be inferred about the female dog?

  1. Her parents both showed symptoms of the disease.
  2. She exhibits strong symptoms of the disease.
  3. Her female offspring all exhibit symptoms of the disease.
  4. She is an asymptomatic carrier of the disease.
Answer
Correct Response: D. Males inherit an X chromosome from their mother and a Y chromosome from their father. In this mating, 50 percent of the male offspring exhibit disease symptoms, which means they inherited an X chromosome from their mother that contains the recessive gene that codes for the disease. Since males only have one X chromosome, the presence of the recessive gene will lead to the expression of the disease phenotype. The male offspring that do not show disease symptoms have inherited an X chromosome from their mother that contains the dominant version of the gene. The presence in the female dog of the recessive version of the gene on one X chromosome and the dominant version of the gene on the other X chromosome indicates that she is an asymptomatic carrier of the disease.

Correct Response: D. Males inherit an X chromosome from their mother and a Y chromosome from their father. In this mating, 50 percent of the male offspring exhibit disease symptoms, which means they inherited an X chromosome from their mother that contains the recessive gene that codes for the disease. Since males only have one X chromosome, the presence of the recessive gene will lead to the expression of the disease phenotype. The male offspring that do not show disease symptoms have inherited an X chromosome from their mother that contains the dominant version of the gene. The presence in the female dog of the recessive version of the gene on one X chromosome and the dominant version of the gene on the other X chromosome indicates that she is an asymptomatic carrier of the disease.


2. In a unit on forces, students slide a wooden block with wheels down a ramp with a rough surface inclined at 30 degrees. The students measure the distance the block travels after it reaches the level surface. The students then repeat the experiment with first one, then two, and finally three thin sheets of lead attached to the top of the block. Which statement most accurately summarizes the likely results of this experiment?

  1. The heavier blocks will travel a longer distance because the velocity at which an object falls increases as the object's mass increases.
  2. The heavier blocks will travel a shorter distance because the frictional force between an object and a surface increases as the object's mass increases.
  3. The heavier blocks will travel a longer distance because the gravitational attraction between the earth and an object increases as the object's mass increases.
  4. The heavier blocks will travel a shorter distance because the wind resistance of the surrounding air to the movement of an object increases as the object's mass increases.
Answer
Correct Response: B. A frictional force acts between two surfaces that slide past one another. The two variables that affect frictional force are the smoothness of the surfaces and how hard the surfaces are pressed together. Adding sheets of lead to the block increases the mass of the block and, therefore, its weight. The added weight will increase how hard the surfaces are pressed together, creating greater frictional force. The additional frictional force will tend to slow the block's movement down the ramp, so it will travel a shorter distance on the level surface.

Correct Response: B. A frictional force acts between two surfaces that slide past one another. The two variables that affect frictional force are the smoothness of the surfaces and how hard the surfaces are pressed together. Adding sheets of lead to the block increases the mass of the block and, therefore, its weight. The added weight will increase how hard the surfaces are pressed together, creating greater frictional force. The additional frictional force will tend to slow the block's movement down the ramp, so it will travel a shorter distance on the level surface.


3. Use the diagram below to answer the question that follows.

The diagram above illustrates which property of technological systems?

  1. Feedback loops are used to control the output of all technological systems.
  2. Technological systems are often made up of the combination of smaller subsystems.
  3. Technological systems may have multiple desirable and undesirable outputs.
  4. A component of one technological system may also be a component of other technological systems.
Answer
Correct Response: B. Many technological systems are complex and consist of many parts. These systems require a combination of smaller distinct subsystems to carry out specific tasks, which, when combined, contribute to a properly functioning larger system. The example above shows how the subsystems that make up an automobile's drivetrain are related to an overall transportation system.

Correct Response: B. Many technological systems are complex and consist of many parts. These systems require a combination of smaller distinct subsystems to carry out specific tasks, which, when combined, contribute to a properly functioning larger system. The example above shows how the subsystems that make up an automobile's drivetrain are related to an overall transportation system.


Competency 0002
Social Studies

4. Historians would most likely use the concept of feudalism to examine Europe during the

  1. Roman Empire
  2. Middle Ages
  3. Renaissance
  4. Reformation
Answer
Correct Response: B. Feudalism was a social system in which lords granted land to vassals in exchange for military assistance. The network of relationships that grew out of these exchanges strongly shaped the economic and political development of Europe during the Middle Ages.

Correct Response: B. Feudalism was a social system in which lords granted land to vassals in exchange for military assistance. The network of relationships that grew out of these exchanges strongly shaped the economic and political development of Europe during the Middle Ages.


5. As a prolonged drought in the northern Great Plains enters its third year, state agricultural agents warn of rising prices for bread, cereal, and macaroni products. The prediction made by the government officials is based on which economic principle?

  1. law of supply and demand
  2. economic efficiency
  3. law of diminishing returns
  4. comparative advantage
Answer
Correct Response: A. According to the law of supply and demand, a reduction in the amount of a commodity supplied is likely to result in increased prices unless accompanied by a corresponding decline in demand. In this case, since demand for grain products is unlikely to decline, reduced grain harvests are likely to result in an increase in the price of products made from grain.

Correct Response: A. According to the law of supply and demand, a reduction in the amount of a commodity supplied is likely to result in increased prices unless accompanied by a corresponding decline in demand. In this case, since demand for grain products is unlikely to decline, reduced grain harvests are likely to result in an increase in the price of products made from grain.


6. Read the passage below from George Washington's Farewell Address; then answer the question that follows.

Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities.

Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course. If we remain one people, under an efficient government, the period is not far off when we may defy material injury from external annoyance; ...when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by justice, shall counsel.

Which of the following best states Washington's point of view in the passage above?

  1. The United States should avoid relations with other nations.
  2. Neutrality is the best foreign policy for a young nation.
  3. The U.S. is too far away for Europe's problems to affect us.
  4. Europe poses a major threat to U.S. interests in the world.
Answer
Correct Response: B. In the first paragraph of the excerpt, Washington states that Europe has had frequent controversies and collisions over matters that do not concern the United States. In the second paragraph, he explains that the United States' geographic isolation from Europe will allow the new nation to avoid entanglement in such "external annoyance[s]." This line of reasoning indicates that Washington sees a neutral foreign policy that steers clear of involvement in foreign conflicts as being in the nation's best interest.

Correct Response: B. In the first paragraph of the excerpt, Washington states that Europe has had frequent controversies and collisions over matters that do not concern the United States. In the second paragraph, he explains that the United States' geographic isolation from Europe will allow the new nation to avoid entanglement in such "external annoyance[s]." This line of reasoning indicates that Washington sees a neutral foreign policy that steers clear of involvement in foreign conflicts as being in the nation's best interest.


Competency 0003
Fine Arts, Health and Fitness, Family and Consumer Science, and Career Development

7. Which musical feature best reflects the influence of West African music on jazz?

  1. a structure based on a harmonic progression consisting of three main chords
  2. the frequent use of trumpets, cornets, and other horns in jazz compositions
  3. the performance of jazz compositions by both small "combos" and "big bands"
  4. a call and response pattern involving alternating solo and ensemble performers
Answer
Correct Response: D. Musical traditions from West Africa have had a major influence on jazz, including an emphasis on improvisation, drumming, percussive sounds, and complex rhythms. An important feature of West African music is known as call and response in which a solo singer is repeatedly answered by a chorus. In jazz, call and response occurs when a voice is answered by an instrument, or when one instrument or group of instruments is answered by another instrument or group of instruments.

Correct Response: D. Musical traditions from West Africa have had a major influence on jazz, including an emphasis on improvisation, drumming, percussive sounds, and complex rhythms. An important feature of West African music is known as call and response in which a solo singer is repeatedly answered by a chorus. In jazz, call and response occurs when a voice is answered by an instrument, or when one instrument or group of instruments is answered by another instrument or group of instruments.


8. Which of the following describes an important cultural function performed over the past four hundred years by both classical ballet in Europe and the Kabuki dancers of Japan?

  1. challenging cultural norms and conventions
  2. providing moral guidance for everyday life
  3. articulating political opposition to governmental regimes
  4. establishing cultural ideals of beauty and grace
Answer
Correct Response: D. Although they evolved in very different ways, both classical ballet in Europe and Kabuki theatre in Japan have left strong imprints on their respective cultures. The images of men and women that emerged in each of these performance traditions evolved for aesthetic and theatrical reasons. Whether it is the seemingly effortless grace of the classical ballet dancer or the stylized refinement of the Kabuki artist, the appearance and deportment of the actors and dancers have been widely emulated in each culture.

Correct Response: D. Although they evolved in very different ways, both classical ballet in Europe and Kabuki theatre in Japan have left strong imprints on their respective cultures. The images of men and women that emerged in each of these performance traditions evolved for aesthetic and theatrical reasons. Whether it is the seemingly effortless grace of the classical ballet dancer or the stylized refinement of the Kabuki artist, the appearance and deportment of the actors and dancers have been widely emulated in each culture.


9. Running repeated sprints at maximum speed would be the most appropriate way to develop the endurance needed for successful participation in which sport?

  1. American football
  2. cross-country
  3. basketball
  4. soccer
Answer
Correct Response: A. During football games, players undergo repeated bursts of intense activity, typically involving running short to medium distances at high speeds. As a training technique, repeated sprints at maximum speed would be an excellent way to help players build the endurance they need during football games.

Correct Response: A. During football games, players undergo repeated bursts of intense activity, typically involving running short to medium distances at high speeds. As a training technique, repeated sprints at maximum speed would be an excellent way to help players build the endurance they need during football games.


10. Which individual is most likely best prepared to handle negative peer pressure in his or her interpersonal relationships?

  1. Allen appears to accept rejection gracefully.
  2. Maureen possesses superior communication skills.
  3. Elena has a clear vision of what she believes.
  4. Tom maintains a friendly attitude in all situations.
Answer
Correct Response: C. Peer groups can have considerable influence on members of the group—both positively and negatively. The influence of peers is especially powerful during adolescence when young people are in the process of separating from their parents and establishing their own identities. At whatever age, however, resisting negative peer pressure requires self confidence and clarity about one's personal values. Someone who has a clear vision of what she or he believes is much better able to recognize peer pressures and make wise personal decisions.

Correct Response: C. Peer groups can have considerable influence on members of the group—both positively and negatively. The influence of peers is especially powerful during adolescence when young people are in the process of separating from their parents and establishing their own identities. At whatever age, however, resisting negative peer pressure requires self confidence and clarity about one's personal values. Someone who has a clear vision of what she or he believes is much better able to recognize peer pressures and make wise personal decisions.


11. In which situation would consumers be best advised to delay the purchase of an expensive product that they do not need urgently?

  1. The price of substitutes for the product is likely to rise in coming months.
  2. Consumer demand for the product is likely to increase in coming months.
  3. The number of firms making the product is likely to decrease in coming months.
  4. Newer versions of a recently-introduced product are likely to be available in coming months.
Answer
Correct Response: D. There are two primary reasons why someone might choose to delay the purchase of an expensive product: if there were a likelihood that the cost would drop and/or that improvements to the product were likely to be made. When a product first appears, the costs of building production facilities and establishing a market keep per unit costs high. As demand for the product grows and production processes expand, however, the per unit cost usually drops significantly. Moreover, initial experience with the product often leads to new models with innovations that improve upon the original version. Therefore, delaying the purchase of an expensive product that has recently come on the market, and that is not urgently needed, is the best consumer choice.

Correct Response: D. There are two primary reasons why someone might choose to delay the purchase of an expensive product: if there were a likelihood that the cost would drop and/or that improvements to the product were likely to be made. When a product first appears, the costs of building production facilities and establishing a market keep per unit costs high. As demand for the product grows and production processes expand, however, the per unit cost usually drops significantly. Moreover, initial experience with the product often leads to new models with innovations that improve upon the original version. Therefore, delaying the purchase of an expensive product that has recently come on the market, and that is not urgently needed, is the best consumer choice.


12. Which of the following is the most appropriate sequence for an individual to follow when beginning the career planning process?

    1. gathering career-related information
    2. identifying potential career choices
    3. defining interests and abilities
    1. defining interests and abilities
    2. identifying potential career choices
    3. gathering career-related information
    1. gathering career-related information
    2. defining interests and abilities
    3. identifying potential career choices
    1. identifying potential career choices
    2. defining interests and abilities
    3. gathering career-related information
Answer
Correct Response: B. The most successful careers are usually those that match to a significant degree an individual's background and personal characteristics. Thus, the first step in the career planning process should be taking an inventory of one's interests and abilities. Once that is accomplished, it is possible to begin focusing on those careers which would best draw upon what that individual likes most and is able to do well.

Correct Response: B. The most successful careers are usually those that match to a significant degree an individual's background and personal characteristics. Thus, the first step in the career planning process should be taking an inventory of one's interests and abilities. Once that is accomplished, it is possible to begin focusing on those careers which would best draw upon what that individual likes most and is able to do well.