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Study Guide

Field 117: Blind and Visually Impaired

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Sample Selected-Response Questions

Competency 0001 
Foundations of Blind and Visually Impaired Education

1. The 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ( I D E A ) significantly changed services for children who are visually impaired in what way?

  1. Schools were required to provide educational services to children with visual impairments in the least restrictive environment.
  2. States began to provide free and appropriate educational services to all three- to five-year-olds with disabilities, including those needing vision services.
  3. Programs and services receiving federal funds could not exclude children on the basis of having a disability alone, including children with visual impairments.
  4. Orientation and mobility services were added for children with visual impairments under the expanded definition of related services.

Competency 0002 
Knowledge of Students Who Are Blind and Visually Impaired

2. A teacher of the visually impaired ( T V I ) works with a six-year-old student who is blind and has an associated dysfunction of the sensory system. Which area of sensory dysfunction would start italics most directly end italics impact the student's literacy development?

  1. difficulty focusing auditory attention in a noisy environment
  2. inadequate bilateral and  upper or lower body  coordination
  3. difficulty interpreting the environment accurately using tactual perception
  4. inability to maintain balance without supports in a standing position

Competency 0003 
Assessment and Individual Program Planning

3. A teacher of the visually impaired ( T V I ) works with a student who has cortical visual impairment ( C V I ). The student recently received a score of 6 on the C V I Range Assessment. One of the student's visual characteristics is difficulty with visual novelty (score of 2.5). Which individualized education program ( I E P ) goal would be most appropriate for the T V I to address as a result of this assessment?

  1. The student will be able to focus on new objects and pictures after three opportunities.
  2. The student will be able to gaze at his or her face in a mirror for at least five seconds.
  3. The student will be able to fixate on nonmoving objects after three opportunities.
  4. The student will be able to fixate on objects ten feet away for at least five seconds.

Competency 0004 
Strategies for Planning and Managing the Learning Environment and for Providing Classroom Interventions

4. Mark is a three-year-old child who is blind and attends a preschool program. His teacher of the visually impaired ( T V I ) would like to create an appropriate learning environment for Mark within the classroom. Which step would be most appropriate for the T V I to implement for this purpose?

  1. removing extraneous toys from the room and encouraging Mark to play with toys one item at a time
  2. including rocking horses, small trampolines, and resonance boards for Mark to explore
  3. adding soft rugs and beanbag chairs to foster comforting surroundings for Mark
  4. having fidget toys available to place in Mark's hands to help him focus

Competency 0005 
Instructional Planning and Delivery to Promote Students' Academic Success

5. A teacher of the visually impaired ( T V I ) works with a first-grade student who has average cognitive ability and low vision caused by a cortical visual impairment ( C V I ). The student shows interest in pictures and in exploring her environment tactually. Which recommendation would be most appropriate for the T V I to implement with regard to the student's learning medium for reading?

  1. The student should be primarily taught braille reading to avoid impairing her sight further and to provide her with a reading medium that is independent of her visual ability.
  2. An evaluation phase should be performed to determine the student's visual and tactual efficiency in the classroom.
  3. The student should be primarily taught sight-reading to promote her visual ability and to help her fit in socially.
  4. Ophthalmological or low vision findings from the student's doctor should be the main factor in deciding her reading medium focus.

Competency 0006 
Strategies for Teaching Language, Literacy, and Expanded Core Curriculum Skills

6. A teacher of the visually impaired ( T V I ) works with a student who has low vision and will be using screen magnification to read more efficiently. Which step should the T V I take start italics first end italics to help the student increase reading rate?

  1. implementing the synthetic speech to allow the student to listen and follow along visually
  2. setting the highest auditory reading rate appropriate for the student based on reading assessments
  3. working with the student to identify the ideal combination of visual features needed to support visual tasks
  4. noting words the student already knows based on size and shape by using auditory identification