Study Guide

Field 076: Physical Education

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Sample Selected-Response Questions

Competency 0001
Individual Growth and Development

1. In dance and personal performance sports (e.g., martial arts), the development of skilled performance depends in large part on a participant's ability to use kinesthetic awareness to move body parts through space efficiently and elegantly. Kinesthetic awareness is derived primarily from sensory information received from

  1. visual clues noticed by the participant while moving
  2. receptors in the participant's muscles, tendons, and joints
  3. auditory signals heard by the participant while moving
  4. mental imagery committed to memory by the participant
Correct Response: B. This item requires examinees to identify principles and components of perceptual-motor abilities (i.e., visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic) and their development and relationship to motor movement. When the human body moves, nerve endings in the muscles, tendons, and joints transmit sensory input to the brain, which provides awareness of body position and where the body and body parts are in space. This physical sense, called kinesthetic awareness, enables safe, efficient, and confident movement.

Competency 0002
Health-Related Fitness

2. Which strategy best illustrates an appropriate application of the fitness training principle of progressive overload in the context of a student's goal of improving cardiorespiratory endurance?

  1. The student warms up the same muscle groups that will be used in the main endurance workout with a brief, low-intensity activity.
  2. Before beginning endurance training workouts, the student engages in dynamic stretching of major muscles to promote enhanced joint range of motion.
  3. The student periodically varies the type of endurance training performed, and increases the duration and intensity of workouts in small increments over time.
  4. The student goes well beyond a comfortable level during endurance training to produce physical discomfort, and then adjusts the workout to minimize the discomfort.
Correct Response: C. This item requires examinees to apply principles of physical condition and training (e.g., frequency, intensity, type, duration, progressive overload, specificity) and types of training approaches and conditioning programs. The principle of overload states that, to improve fitness levels, a body system must be stressed beyond the level of work that it is accustomed to by increasing the duration or intensity of regular workouts. Consistent stress, or overload, causes a physiological adaptation to occur in the body that is expressed as an increased level of cardiorespiratory fitness and/or strength. Increases in stress loads should be small and progressive to avoid physical discomfort and possible injury, and to ensure safety.

Competency 0003
Movement Concepts, Skills, and Activities

3. In a first-grade physical education class, students participate in an obstacle course activity that incorporates animal walks and movements. As students travel through the course, the teacher emphasizes relevant vocabulary words. For instance, the teacher asks students to crawl under a low bench like a lizard, climb over a pile of mats like a mountain goat, jump a zigzag pattern like a rabbit, and walk quickly like a lemur across a balance beam on the floor. Which student learning outcome is this physical education activity most likely designed to elicit?

  1. Demonstrate variations in movement with directional, spatial, and temporal awareness.
  2. Apply an understanding of rules and directions for an active class.
  3. Identify major body parts, muscles, and bones used to move and support the body.
  4. Exhibit cooperative play with children of differing abilities under a variety of conditions.
Correct Response: A. This item requires examinees to promote understanding of movement concepts related to relationships; spatial, directional, and temporal awareness; qualities of movement; and movement concepts (e.g., self-space, general space, direction, level, pathway, flow, speed). As students use locomotor skills to travel through the obstacle course and move under, over, and across objects, they develop awareness of directional concepts, spatial concepts, and relationships concepts (e.g., relationships to physical education equipment, relationships of body parts working together). Varying their speed contributes to an awareness of the use of time, or temporal awareness, and a variation in effort. Jumping in a zigzag pattern requires a variation in pathways, and climbing and crawling over and under equipment requires variations in levels. In this activity, students demonstrate use of the movement concepts of effort, speed, levels, and pathways with directional, spatial, and temporal awareness.

Competency 0004
Physical Education Curriculum and Pedagogy

4. Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

Strategies for Net and Wall Games and Activities

In physical education classes, these strategies are primarily used for which purpose?

  1. to emphasize the cooperative rather than the competitive nature of games and activities
  2. to maximize the inclusion and equitable participation of students with diverse abilities
  3. to enhance the novelty and challenging nature of net and wall activities
  4. to minimize the need for students to develop competence in striking patterns and skills
Correct Response: B. This item requires examinees to implement techniques for adapting and modifying rules, games, equipment, instructional approaches, activities, settings, and grouping strategies to accommodate diverse students. With the goal of helping all students maximize individual potential, physical education teachers often adapt and modify activities to provide differentiated instruction to individuals or groups. Modifications to instructional approaches and the content, setting, equipment used, learning activities, and outcomes of lessons can all be used to differentiate instruction and promote the successful participation of all students. In net and wall games and activities, many students can benefit from a variety of textures, weights, and the “feel” of an activity and the equipment used. Adjusting the sizes or boundaries of courts, fields, and goals, as well as the heights of nets, can often decrease the difficulty level of activities and help to ensure the success of students. Playing on carpeted or grassy surfaces increases safety and can slow down the pace of games. Allowing students to choose among equipment of different sizes, weights, and textures helps ensure that students of various skill levels can participate comfortably.

5. In a physical education program, teachers work on aligning course-specific learning outcomes with an assessment system that can be used to evaluate students' performance and cognitive understanding of motor skills and can be adapted to different instructional units. The teachers create a four-point rubric using the following achievement levels: Emerging (1), Approaching (2), Meeting the Learning Outcome (3), and Exceeding the Learning Outcome (4). To adapt the rubric to a particular unit of instruction, which step would be the most important one to carry out?

  1. developing criteria for each achievement level that specify the knowledge and skill characteristics expected of students at that level
  2. implementing class activities using a scaffold of increasingly difficult tasks to address the achievement levels from 1 to 4 sequentially
  3. creating criterion-referenced tests requiring higher-level cognitive abilities to ensure that students who have difficulty performing motor skills can be evaluated through alternate means
  4. designing alternate assessments for achievement levels 3 and 4 that allow students to create a product to demonstrate their understanding and competence in relation to learning outcomes
Correct Response: A. This item requires examinees to demonstrate an understanding of physical education assessment methods, tools, and protocols for analyzing and evaluating student achievement in each learning domain (i.e., psychomotor, affective, and cognitive). A rubric is a matrix of criteria for an expected skill performance or learning outcome that describes the level of performance or achievement associated with each score point on the rubric's scale. A four-point scoring rubric for motor skill performance and understanding would include descriptors designed to specify and clarify the knowledge and skill characteristics a student would be expected to demonstrate or exhibit at each of the four levels (e.g., emerging, approaching, meeting, and exceeding). For example, a rubric for the underhand serve in volleyball might describe skill or movement characteristics associated with position of the feet, the toss or pre-strike, use of the hands and contact with the ball, and follow through and accuracy. Knowledge characteristics might include knowing that the feet should point at a target and that contact should occur above and in front of the head with an open palm. The most useful rubrics are developmentally appropriate, and clearly communicate specific skills and learning expectations that can be used to evaluate student progress and achievement.