Study Guide

Field 118: Technology Education

Sample Constructed-Response Item

Competency 0007
Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Use the information below to complete the exercise that follows.

You are planning a high school (commencement level) technology education lesson based on the New York State Technology Learning Standards. You will cover the following Key Idea and Performance Indicator in a lesson addressing the Topic given below.

Key Idea: Engineering Design

Performance Indicator: Students will generate creative solution ideas, break ideas into the significant functional elements, and explore possible refinements; predict possible outcomes using mathematical and functional modeling techniques; choose the optimal solution to the problem, clearly documenting ideas against design criteria and constraints; and explain how human values, economics, ergonomics, and environmental considerations have influenced the solution.

Topic: Students will design a prosthetic foot and ankle assembly.

Prepare a response of approximately 400–600 words in which you:

Sample Strong Response to the Constructed-Response Assignment

Students in a high school technology education class will apply the engineering design process to create a prosthetic foot and ankle assembly. The final product will include a list of design requirements, a CAD drawing, and a description of the materials that would be used to create the assembly. Students will be supplied with a rubric at the beginning of the project so that they know exactly what is expected of them.

This learning goal will require that students have the following skills and conceptual understandings: communication skills, problem solving skills, use of a CAD program, and the ability to brainstorm. In addition, students will apply physics concepts of force, weight, and mass; mechanical properties of structures; and characteristics of different materials.

The lesson will begin with a mini-lecture about the need for prosthetics, the history of prosthetics, and recent advances in prosthetic devices. The purpose of the mini-lecture will be to show how the technology solves human problems. Following the mini-lecture, students will form teams of two to conduct preliminary research by analyzing the characteristics of their own foot and ankle. Students will make preliminary measurements of the geometry of the lower leg, ankle, and foot, and how much weight they support. They will also analyze how the ankle moves in different planes. Students may also use other resources such as their textbook or the Internet to gather more information about the characteristics of the human foot-and-ankle assembly. Students may also want to consider the nature of the ankle mechanism as they walk, run, jump, etc.

After the students have conducted their research, they will be able to use the gathered information to define the problem by clearly stating the requirements of the design, such as where it will attach to the lower leg, how much it will weigh, or how much weight it can support.

The next step will be to brainstorm design ideas. Students may want to break the problem down into functional subsystems such as the interface between the lower leg and the device, the ankle assembly, and the foot. Students will generate several thumbnail sketches, along with estimates of torques, forces, and lever arms. Potential designs will also include a discussion of material properties along with an estimate of the total weight of the device.

After the brainstorming session, each team will rank their ideas and choose the best design. Once the best design idea is chosen, students will calculate the specifications and create their CAD drawings. The drawings will include front, top, and side views with all dimensions labeled.

This project requires a learning environment that includes measuring devices and computers with CAD software and Internet access. Ideally, the computers should be able to print to a large format printer or plotter. The ideal lab arrangement should be designed to encourage small group work. One possibility would be clusters of two-person workstations, each having a computer and some free desk surface.

Assessment of this project will be carried out using a combination of informal observations and an evaluation of the final products using the supplied rubric. The rubric should be written specifically to address the learning goals listed previously.

Performance Characteristics for Constructed-Response Item

The following characteristics guide the scoring of responses to the constructed-response assignment.

Completeness The degree to which the response addresses all parts of the assignment
Accuracy The degree to which the response demonstrates the relevant knowledge and skills accurately and effectively
Depth of Support The degree to which the response provides appropriate examples and details that demonstrate sound reasoning

Score Scale for Constructed-Response Item

A score will be assigned to the response to the constructed-response item according to the following score scale.

Score Point Score Point Description
4 The "4" response reflects a thorough command of the relevant knowledge and skills:
  • The response thoroughly addresses all parts of the assignment.
  • The response demonstrates the relevant knowledge and skills with thorough accuracy and effectiveness.
  • The response is well supported by relevant examples and details and thoroughly demonstrates sound reasoning.
3 The "3" response reflects a general command of the relevant knowledge and skills:
  • The response generally addresses all parts of the assignment.
  • The response demonstrates the relevant knowledge and skills with general accuracy and effectiveness.
  • The response is generally supported by some examples and/or details and generally demonstrates sound reasoning.
2 The "2" response reflects a partial command of the relevant knowledge and skills:
  • The response addresses all parts of the assignment, but most only partially; or some parts are not addressed at all.
  • The response demonstrates the relevant knowledge and skills with partial accuracy and effectiveness.
  • The response is partially supported by some examples and/or details or demonstrates flawed reasoning.
1 The "1" response reflects little or no command of the relevant knowledge and skills:
  • The response minimally addresses the assignment.
  • The response demonstrates the relevant knowledge and skills with minimum accuracy and effectiveness.
  • The response is minimally supported or demonstrates significantly flawed reasoning.
UThe response is unscorable because it is unrelated to the assigned topic or off-task, unreadable, written in a language other than English or contains an insufficient amount of original work to score.
BNo response.