Study Guide

Field 073: Health Education

Sample Constructed-Response Item

Competency 0006
Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Use the information below to complete the task that follows.

You are planning to teach a unit on the topic of bullying prevention. Using your knowledge of health education concepts, principles, and practices, write a response of approximately 400–600 words in which you:

Sample Strong Response to the Constructed-Response Assignment

In a unit on bullying prevention, one important learning goal for students in grades 5-8 is "Recognize cyberbullying, its consequences, and methods for handling cyberbullying situations effectively."

This is an appropriate goal to include in a unit on bullying prevention because many students in these grades use cell phones, social media, and other electronic and digital tools to communicate and socialize, and are therefore at risk of becoming either victims or perpetrators of cyberbullying. Students who are harassed and stigmatized through cyberbullying are at increased risk for physical and verbal bullying, anxiety, depression, absenteeism, alcohol and other drug use, and even suicide. Achieving this learning goal can help minimize these risks.

To promote students' achievement of the learning goal, I would implement the following strategy. First, I would use a class meeting or circle to discuss with students the features and consequences of cyberbullying. I would define bullying (e.g., intentional, repeated hurtful acts, words, or other behaviors involving a power imbalance) and cyberbullying (e.g., using social media sites, text messages, images, instagrams, or blogs to harass, intimidate, humiliate, exclude, or threaten someone). Then I would engage students in brainstorming and listing effects of cyberbullying (e.g., loneliness, poor sleep, anxiety), as well as what to do and not do (e.g., be a responsible digital citizen, block cyberbullies, report to a trusted adult, stand by friends who are targets, save evidence of cyberbullying, do not just "take it," do not forward or add to hurtful posts or texts, avoid retaliating).

Second, I would have students pair up and role play a situation in which a friend is being cyberbullied. During the role play activity, students would be expected to describe the way in which the friend has been targeted, discuss how they could help the friend, and demonstrate appropriate skills for responding to cyberbullying.

Finally, students would form small groups to review and respond to the role plays. Group members would discuss two or more of the plays. Specifically, they would identify the features of the cyberbullying depicted, the potential consequences, the responsive actions taken, and the effectiveness of those actions.

One resource I would use would be StopBullying.gov, which includes webisodes, video clips of cyberbullying situations, antibullying instructional toolkits, and links to other resources.

This strategy would support the learning goal by providing students with specific information related to resisting and preventing cyberbullying and increasing their awareness of the serious consequences of cyberbullying. Role playing gives students the opportunity to apply the skills in realistic situations. Reviewing their peers’ plays helps to reinforce the newly-learned skills and information.

As a formative assessment, I would walk around and informally observe the student pairs to evaluate whether their role plays demonstrate an understanding of the concepts and skills covered in class, and whether any focused reteaching is necessary.

Performance Characteristics for Constructed-Response Item

The following characteristics guide the scoring of responses to the constructed-response assignment.

Completeness The degree to which the response addresses all parts of the assignment
Accuracy The degree to which the response demonstrates the relevant knowledge and skills accurately and effectively
Depth of Support The degree to which the response provides appropriate examples and details that demonstrate sound reasoning

Score Scale for Constructed-Response Item

A score will be assigned to the response to the constructed-response item according to the following score scale.

Score Point Score Point Description
4 The "4" response reflects a thorough command of the relevant knowledge and skills:
  • The response thoroughly addresses all parts of the assignment.
  • The response demonstrates the relevant knowledge and skills with thorough accuracy and effectiveness.
  • The response is well supported by relevant examples and details and thoroughly demonstrates sound reasoning.
3 The "3" response reflects a general command of the relevant knowledge and skills:
  • The response generally addresses all parts of the assignment.
  • The response demonstrates the relevant knowledge and skills with general accuracy and effectiveness.
  • The response is generally supported by some examples and/or details and generally demonstrates sound reasoning.
2 The "2" response reflects a partial command of the relevant knowledge and skills:
  • The response addresses all parts of the assignment, but most only partially; or some parts are not addressed at all.
  • The response demonstrates the relevant knowledge and skills with partial accuracy and effectiveness.
  • The response is partially supported by some examples and/or details or demonstrates flawed reasoning.
1 The "1" response reflects little or no command of the relevant knowledge and skills:
  • The response minimally addresses the assignment.
  • The response demonstrates the relevant knowledge and skills with minimum accuracy and effectiveness.
  • The response is minimally supported or demonstrates significantly flawed reasoning.
UThe response is unscorable because it is unrelated to the assigned topic or off-task, unreadable, written in a language other than English or contains an insufficient amount of original work to score.
BNo response.